CLEAR, established in 2010 as a multilateral partnership, is aligned with the objectives of these international agreements. Its vision is to promote development anchored in evidence, learning, and mutual accountability and to respond to the technical and institutional M&E and PM needs of partner countries. This State of the Initiative Report provides an overview of the program, and its objectives, and its accomplishments from program inception through June 30, 2012.
Centers for Learning
on Evaluation and Results
The CLEAR Initiative
The CLEAR Initiative is a collaboration of leading academic
institutions around the world, designed to provide capacity
development in monitoring and evaluation (M&E) and
performance management (PM). These institutions were
selected competitively to house CLEAR Centers. Through
its network of regional centers, CLEAR reaches across
boundaries, languages, and cultures to lead, innovate, and
influence capacity building for government, civil society, and
others to support the development and implementation of
evidence-based policies and programs.
CLEAR receives financial and advisory support from
development agencies and foundations with a stake in
M&E improvements in public and philanthropic programs.
Management of the program is through the CLEAR
Secretariat, which the World Bank’s Independent Evaluation
Group hosts. A Board composed of financial supporters to
the program provides strategic guidance and oversight.
CLEAR approaches its work in a two-fold manner.
CLEAR: The Vision and Strategy 2
Highlights from the Centers 6
CLEAR Anglophone Africa Center 7
CLEAR South Asia Center 8
CLEAR East Asia Center 9
CLEAR Francophone Africa Center 10
CLEAR Latin America Center 11
CLEAR’s Global Approach 12
Solving the Challenges Ahead 14
• REGIONAL APPROACH Regional centers develop and
provide high-quality and relevant capacity development
products and services in M&E and PM. These products
and services rely on local ownership and perspectives
from regional experts. Among the services provided
are workshops, conferences, research, leadership
development and support to M&E communities of
practice. Many of the products and services developed
regionally then influence CLEAR’s global efforts.
• GLOBAL APPROACH CLEAR generates innovative and
internationally benchmarked M&E and PM knowledge
and approaches to capacity development to benefit
communities of practice in M&E. The topics developed
are based on demands and interests from the regional
centers and their stakeholders, those where CLEAR has a
comparative advantage, or those that are “cutting edge”
or frontier topics in the field of M&E and PM. CLEAR
also facilitates peer learning, knowledge exchange, and
mentoring across regions on what works, what does not,
Effective development is guided by evidence. But generating
relevant and timely evidence and using it effectively has
proven to be difficult. The capacity for developing and
implementing contextually appropriate M&E and PM
approaches varies across countries. Meanwhile, national
reforms, civil society and citizens’ push for transparency and
accountability, and an international focus on measuring
and achieving development results are driving the need and
demand for evidence and evidence-based programs and
A series of international agreements—including the
Millennium Development Goals (2000), the Paris
Declaration (2005), the Accra Agenda for Action (2008),
and the Busan Partnership for Effective Development
(2011)—have clearly promoted evidence-based decisionmaking
to improve development results. These agreements
underscore the need to help countries improve their
statistical, monitoring, and evaluation capacities and
systems, and they call for an action plan to leverage diverse
resources and build on South-South learning to do so.
CLEAR, established in 2010 as a multilateral partnership,
is aligned with the objectives of these international
agreements. Its vision is to promote development anchored
in evidence, learning, and mutual accountability and to
respond to the technical and institutional M&E and PM
needs of partner countries.
This State of the Initiative Report provides an overview of the
program, and its objectives, and its accomplishments from
program inception through June 30, 2012. To learn more,
see a video about CLEAR at http://www.theclearinitiative.org/
www.theclearinitiative.org | 1
CLEAR aims to strengthen partner countries’ academic institutions to enhance government and civil society capacity
in M&E and PM through the following:
• Create a network of competitively selected CLEAR Centers hosted by academic institutions
across the globe.
• Develop a global public goods approach in M&E that benefits the CLEAR network and
the M&E community internationally.
CLEAR: The Vision and Strategy
The centers collaborate with their regional constituents and
partners to develop and provide relevant, cost-effective, and
practical in-region knowledge and capacity development
products and services. Their capacity development
approaches range from short-term workshops to mentoring
to research. By empowering the centers and their partners,
CLEAR is enhancing regional knowledge and building
institutional capacity for sustainable impact.
Participants from the African Monitoring and Evaluation Systems Workshop 2012,
“The Busan High-Level Forum
called for an action plan
to address capacity gaps
in monitoring progress and
evaluating impact. Though
small, CLEAR is demonstrating
how the plan can be put into
action. It focuses on results,
and it does so by enabling
partnerships and knowledgesharing
— Hans-Martin Boehmer, IEG, World Bank,
2 | Centers for Learning on Evaluation and Results
FIGURE 1 CLEAR–Theory of Change
Figure 1 illustrates CLEAR’s overall theory of change. CLEAR’s work will evolve based on continued input by the centers
and as the initiative matures and itself learns by doing.
Strengthened monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems and practices
Stakeholders use evidence in making decisions for improved development results
Highest level outcomes
Higher level outcomes
Strategically chosen capacity building outputs and activities
Establishing CLEAR and how CLEAR works
and centers are
as a leader in
Resources underpinning CLEAR
Global knowledge strengthens centers and regional approach
Regional knowledge and innovations enhance global learning
produce and use
demand for M&E
Collaboration with M&E
Networks, Communities of
Grants, Competitions and
• Civil society
• Private sector
Responds to need and demand
Promotes diversity in M&E
methods and approaches that
are context appropriate
Advice and expert
Donor funds and
www.theclearinitiative.org | 3
Five CLEAR Centers were established between 2010
• THE CLEAR ANGLOPHONE AFRICA CENTER University
of Witwatersrand in South Africa, with two partners,
the Ghana Institute of Management and Public and
Administration and the Kenya School of Government
• THE CLEAR SOUTH ASIA CENTER Jameel Poverty Action
Lab South Asia at the Institute for Financial Management
and Research in India with partner, Center for Economic
Research in Pakistan
• THE CLEAR EAST ASIA CENTER Asia-Pacific Finance and
Development Center in China
• THE CLEAR FRANCOPHONE AFRICA CENTER Centre Africain
d’Etudes Supérieures en Gestion in Senegal, with partner
2ie-International Institute for Water and Environmental
Engineering in Burkina Faso
• THE CLEAR LATIN AMERICA CENTER Centro de
Investigación y Docencia Económicas in Mexico
“What CLEAR is actually trying
to do is go beyond the donors
to the governments, the civil
society, and the private sector
in developing countries.”
— Bruce Courtney, World Bank
4 | Centers for Learning on Evaluation and Results
CLEAR Phases and Timeline
CLEAR’s three-phase approach was designed for the selection and development of the centers and the CLEAR Global program.
CLEAR Phases and Timeline
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Anglophone Africa (Mar – Dec 2010)
South Asia (Jun 2010 – Jan 2011)
Francophone Africa (Apr 2011 – Jan 2012)
Latin America (Apr 2011 – Jan 2012)
Anglophone Africa (Dec 2011 – Dec 2012)
South Asia (Sept 2011 – Dec 2012)
Francophone Africa (Oct 2012 – Dec 2012)
Latin America (Oct 2012 – Dec 2012)
East Asia (Sept 2010)
East Asia (Oct 2012 – Dec 2012)
Anglophone Africa (Dec 2011 – Dec 2016)
South Asia (Sept 2011 – Dec 2016)
Francophone Africa (Oct 2012 – Dec 2017)
East Asia (Oct 2012 – Dec 2017)
Latin America (Oct 2012 – Dec 2017)
“The Centers are out there owning
this program with enthusiasm and
moving it forward.”
— Cheryl Gray, Inter-American Development Bank
www.theclearinitiative.org | 5
The first year of the CLEAR Initiative focused on consolidating the centers’ core teams, refining longer-term
regional strategies, and initiating program implementation. Although the overarching objectives of each CLEAR
Center are the same, the centers develop different approaches to meet the opportunities and constraints posed
by the sociopolitical and economic environments within their respective regions.
Highlights from the Centers
CLEAR Centers Established 2010–2011
6 | Centers for Learning on Evaluation and Results
CLEAR ANGLOPHONE AFRICA CENTER
The CLEAR Anglophone Africa Center was established in
2011 at the University of Witwatersrand in South Africa,
and in collaboration with the Kenya School of Government
and the Ghana Institute of Management and Public and
The countries in CLEAR Anglophone Africa have a broad
spectrum of economic development, yet the region
experiences a significant demand from many governments
and civil society organizations for M&E activities.
Fostering Demand and Leadership
CLEAR Anglophone Africa established a comprehensive
M&E capacity development program with the Presidency
of South Africa, specifically with the Department for
Performance Monitoring and Evaluation (DPME). This effort
led the DPME to explore new opportunities for collaboration
with the Budget Office of the South Africa Parliament.
Similar efforts are being explored in Uganda, Kenya, Ghana
and other counties with emergent “systems” approaches to
institutionalize M&E. With the DPME, CLEAR Anglophone
Africa supported research regarding African countries M&E
systems and convened the multi-country Africa Country
Systems Conference. Participants discussed how bottlenecks
in M&E systems can be addressed.
CLEAR Anglophone Africa is also working with
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) who are
already engaging in M&E activities, but want to improve
performance, especially in their grassroots efforts. The
center has partnered with two NGOs to build their
monitoring capacity: Black Sash, which engages in citizen
monitoring of government grants, and HIVAN, an HIV
Building and Supporting Networks
CLEAR Anglophone Africa has collaborated with and
worked to strengthen the network of M&E professionals
in the African Evaluation Association, the South African
Evaluation Association, and the African Community of
Practice for Managing for Development Results. For
example, the center has provided workshops on the key
topic of performance-based budgeting, which is not widely
available in the region.
BY THE NUMBERS ANGLOPHONE AFRICA
57% Clients from countries beyond South Africa
291 Clients in workshops
38% Clients who were women in workshops
92% Rated capacity building excellent/good
CLEAR Anglophone Africa staff at Accra Forum.
www.theclearinitiative.org | 7
CLEAR SOUTH ASIA CENTER
The CLEAR South Asia Center began operations in
October 2011, at the Jamel Poverty and Action Lab South
Asia (JPSA) at the Institute for Public Management and
Research (IFMR) in partnership with the Center for Economic
Research in Pakistan. CLEAR South Asia also began to work
with BRAC in Bangladesh and the Sri Lanka Evaluation
Association. The center’s inaugural work has focused on
seizing emerging opportunities with key organizations to
strengthen their M&E capacity and to highlight the benefits
of M&E for broader audiences.
CLEAR South Asia is home to the world’s largest
concentration of the poor and presents some of the
most complex sociopolitical challenges in addressing
development problems. M&E efforts remain underutilized,
and the evaluation profession is not widely recognized;
yet South Asia is host to a vibrant civil society committed
to monitoring government performance and holding
Fostering Demand and Leadership in M&E
CLEAR South Asia worked with the Lal Bahadur Shastri
National Academy of Administration to raise awareness
of M&E for effective public management for India’s high
level public officials from the Indian Administrative Service.
Similar efforts were made with staff members from the
Indian Parliament and the government of Maldives.
CLEAR South Asia also developed long-term engagements
with respected civil society organizations. It launched
an M&E research and capacity development program
in collaboration with Kerala’s Planning Department and
Janasree, the largest NGO in India. An initial workshop
highlighted the need for gender-related outcome data.
BY THE NUMBERS SOUTH ASIA
47% Clients from countries beyond India
980 Clients in workshops
36% Clients who were women in workshops
90% Rated capacity building excellent/good
120 Clients in Hands-on Mentoring
CLEAR South Asia Center participants in the Executive Education Course in New Delhi, India, July 2012.
8 | Centers for Learning on Evaluation and Results
CLEAR EAST ASIA CENTER
CLEAR continued to work with the Asia-Pacific Finance
and Development Center (AFDC) through SHIPDET
(Shanghai International Program in Development Evaluation
Training) in 2012. AFDC, which already had an established
relationship with the World Bank through the SHIPDET
program, was grandfathered into CLEAR, becoming the
CLEAR East Asia Center in 2012.
AFDC began working with the Shanghai National Audit
Office, which trains all government officials in financial
management and auditing, by introducing modules
on M&E to deepen results-based management in the
AFDC continues to see high demand for its workshops
such as SHIPDET and its more recent work with CLEAR.
In collaboration with the International Initiative for Impact
Evaluation (3ie) and CLEAR Global, AFDC also piloted
a workshop on the topic of practical implementation of
impact evaluation. This intensive, high-demand workshop
was the first in the region with teams of policy makers, M&E
professionals, and program managers from East Asia and
the Pacific in attendance. Only 30 percent of about 150
applicants could be enrolled because of limited meeting
space, and most enrollees participated as teams who were
working on evaluations.
This program is now facilitating Janasree’s communitybased
projects to incorporate such data as they develop
solutions and measure gender-related results. Lessons
from these projects will be disseminated via M&E network
meetings and through webinars pioneered with the
Canadian International Development Research Center
office based in Delhi.
As part of its “learning by doing model,” CLEAR South
Asia has initiated evaluation partnerships with JPSA on
development issues in South Asia, such as education,
women’s access to work, and rural employment. CLEAR
South Asia/JPSA, following a request from the Secretary
of Education of the Indian State of Haryana, is mentoring
staff to conduct active research and evaluation based on
the Right to Education Act. CLEAR South Asia and India’s
Planning Commission are in discussions to develop an
evaluation design and implementation plan for the Rural
Employment Guarantee Scheme that will incorporate a
mentoring program for local evaluators.
Building and Supporting Networks
In addition to working directly with the consumers and
implementers of M&E, CLEAR South Asia/JPSA’s goal is to
formalize evaluation activities within academia. They are
working with IFMR’s Department of Higher Education, the
Indian Institute of Technology in Madras, and the Teaching
of Evaluation South Asia program to introduce M&E topics
in their core courses as well as support communities of
practice in M&E in India, Sri Lanka, and Nepal.
CLEAR South Asia/JPSA is also highlighting the role of
technology in M&E by partnering with Fieldata to innovate
real-time electronic data collection and publishing results
on the Web.
Presenters and organizers at the Impact Evaluation Course at CLEAR East Asia in
Shanghai, April 2012.
www.theclearinitiative.org | 9
CLEAR FRANCOPHONE AFRICA CENTER
The CLEAR Francophone Africa Center at the Centre
Africain d’Etudes Supérieures en Gestion (CESAG) in
Senegal was selected in January 2012.
Fostering Demand and Leadership in M&E
In February 2012, the CLEAR Francophone Africa Center
launched a major assessment of the need and demand
for M&E and PM in Benin, Mauritania, and Senegal. This
assessment will help define the center’s engagement and
capacity development strategy in the region.
A workshop is scheduled for 2013 to review the results of
this assessment with key stakeholders, devise a specific
work plan, and serve as the official launch of CLEAR
Building and Supporting Networks
CLEAR Francophone Africa initiated discussions with
professional associations, such as the Senegalese
Monitoring and Evaluation Association, the Francophone
Evaluation Network, the Benin Evaluation Association, and
the Niger Evaluation Association on how the center can
better support their work. The center was recently invited
to attend and contribute to the Benin Evaluation Days,
sponsored by the government of Benin’s Bureau for the
Evaluation of Public Policy.
To better respond to the regional needs and demand
for capacity development, CLEAR Francophone Africa is
exploring partnerships with high-profile academic and
management institutions in the region, such as the Gestion
de la Polities Economies Program in Côte d’Ivoire and
the Institute Superieurs des Sciences de la Population in
CLEAR Francophone Center Staff in Dakar, Senegal.
10 | Centers for Learning on Evaluation and Results
CLEAR LATIN AMERICA CENTER
The CLEAR Latin America Center at the Centro de
Investigación y Docencia Económicas (CIDE) was selected in
January 2012. Officially launched in June 2012 by Mexico’s
President Felipe Calderon, this inaugural event provided
international visibility for CLEAR. The Mexican government
has pledged its support for the Center with $1.5 million over
the next three years with the Mexican Ministry of Finance and
Consejo Nacional de Evaluación de la Política de Desarrollo
Social (CONEVAL) serving as active participants in shaping
the center’s agenda.
Fostering Demand and Leadership
CLEAR Latin America already has tackled basic and secondgeneration
M&E issues facing Latin America. The culture
of M&E is relatively well developed in the region with
governments using M&E extensively and with civil society
firmly engaged in the accountability process using M&E.
Center activities included a series of seminars on M&E
in public security, which is a key issue in Latin American
countries, and the publishing of a book on how evaluation
recommendations can be implemented. The center is working
with countries in the region to find “entry points” for M&E
and to support champions for instituting and using M&E
The center also is also becoming a chief convener of
workshops on the technical issues of performance-based
budgeting and impact evaluation.
Building and Supporting Networks
CLEAR Latin America is partnering with the Peruvian Ministry
of Women and Vulnerable Populations and the Mexican
Ministries of Finance, Social Development, and Foreign
Affairs on the effectiveness of their programs. The center
plans to become a core partner and knowledge provider
within the Latin American M&E network.
Inauguration of CLEAR Latin America Center with former Minister of Finance and
current Minister of Foreign Affairs of Mexico, José Antonio Meade Kuribreña, and
former President of Mexico, Felipe Calderón.
CLEAR Latin America staff at M&E workshop held in Mexico City, Mexico.
www.theclearinitiative.org | 11
CLEAR’s Global Approach encourages partnerships among countries, funding organizations, leading regional
institutions, and local stakeholders in order to contribute to solving development problems using monitoring,
evaluation, and performance-based management. This collaboration reduces costly fragmentation and promotes
integration of local and global knowledge and approaches to M&E. Countries face many similar challenges and
increasingly seek expertise and knowledge from other countries to solve common problems. The ability to share
information enables the CLEAR Centers to adopt best practices and adapt them to their own local needs.
CLEAR’s Global Approach
12 | Centers for Learning on Evaluation and Results
A key component of the CLEAR Global Approach is
developing materials on recognized M&E standards.
Highlights of the Global Approach are:
• Educational, case-based and practical materials in both
performance-based budgeting and impact evaluation.
The materials were produced following the expressed
needs of the centers because high-quality resources in
capacity development for practitioners were unavailable.
• International experts collaborated with CLEAR
Anglophone Africa, CLEAR East Asia and CLEAR South
Asia to pilot and co-deliver workshops in performancebased
budgeting. And the impact evaluation course
was piloted with CLEAR Anglophone Africa and CLEAR
East Asia. The centers are adapting this information to
render them context specific for groups of clients and
stakeholders within their own regions.
• CLEAR’s focus on quality and its practical approach to
impact evaluation was underscored by a partnership with
3ie, a major funder of country-based impact evaluation
teams across the globe. 3ie sponsored teams to attend
CLEAR workshops. Through this ongoing partnership,
CLEAR will become a source of knowledge and learning
for on-the-ground 3ie teams.
• The CLEAR Global Approach also promotes peer
learning and knowledge sharing through global forums.
In June 2011, the first forum laid the groundwork for a
common vision of the program. The process continued
with the forum at Accra in January 2012 where all five
centers and donor members discussed strategies for the
centers’ capacity development efforts.
• CLEAR Global also supported M&E networks and
communities of practice, including the Latin American
Evaluation Network, the South Asian Evaluation
Conclave, and the Impact Evaluation Network through
presentations on evaluation topics. CLEAR’s work on the
practical impact evaluation course was featured at the
conference “Mind the Gap: From Evidence to Policy” in
Cuernavaca, Mexico, June 15–17, 2011.
The CLEAR Secretariat has developed the Clear Initiative
website as a platform for knowledge dissemination and the
sharing of the centers’ work (www.theclearinitiative.org).
Several task forces were established to address
new ideas for CLEAR’s next steps.
• QUALITY ASSURANCE Developing quality
assurance processes for CLEAR’s M&E capacity
• KNOWLEDGE SHARING How CLEAR Centers
can generate and share knowledge within and
• GOVERNANCE Current and future governance
of CLEAR based on the principles of
performance, legitimacy, efficiency, and strategy
through regional representation and Regional
• COMMUNICATIONS How CLEAR’s resources
can be a source of information for professional
exchanges among the centers and regional
experts through an online, Web-based platform.
www.theclearinitiative.org | 13
The CLEAR model is based on establishing an environment for practical, relevant, and high-quality M&E,
recognizing and stoking demand, and building capacity to be responsive to that demand. The success of CLEAR
requires a commitment by each host institution in the areas of leadership, management, and technical capability.
Each center is faced with a complex set of parallel activities:
• Stimulating demand for M&E at all levels, responding
adequately to demand, and building core capacities to
respond to evolving demand.
• Developing a strategy for building a revenue stream for
the long-term for sustainability while balancing revenuegenerating
work with innovation and public goods that
may not yield revenues and strengthening its position with
its host institution.
To implement these activities well, CLEAR’s commitments are:
• Continuing to develop global knowledge and capacity
development materials based on ongoing needs analysis,
and encouraging implementation of this information.
• Providing peer learning and mentoring support.
• Updating the governance structure to include regional
experts to benefit from regional advise and knowledge.
• Monitoring performance regularly and conducting
a mid-term review.
• Establishing longer-term grants with the centers,
enabling them to have stable medium-term funding
while developing longer-term strategies with sustainability
as the end result.
Solving the Challenges Ahead
“CLEAR is key in terms of
raising the awareness of
the importance of using
monitoring and evaluation
information and getting
government and other actors
to monitor and evaluate their
programs so decision-makers
can make better decisions.”
— El Hadji Gueye, CLEAR Francophone Africa
14 | Centers for Learning on Evaluation and Results
www.theclearinitiative.org | 15
Donors and the Board
CLEAR is governed by a Board, comprising representatives
from the donor organizations that provide financial and
advisory support. The Board members, who are leaders in
the international community and experts on M&E issues,
have guided the shaping of the program from its inception.
The donor agencies supporting CLEAR include the African
Development Bank, the Australian Agency for International
Development, the Belgian Development Cooperation,
the Inter-American Development Bank, the Rockefeller
Foundation, the Swedish International Development
Cooperation Agency, the Swiss Agency for Development
Cooperation, the UK Department for International
Development, and the World Bank.
CLEAR is managed by the Secretariat, housed at the
Independent Evaluation Group of the World Bank.
In particular, the program draws upon the World Bank’s:
• Experience with capacity development and
• Knowledge of global programs, governance,
and public sector administration.
• In-depth experience and knowledge of evaluation
• Capacity to work with the institutional dimensions
of results-based management.
• Experience with developing international networks and
programs (e.g., the M&E network in Latin America,
the International Development Evaluation Association,
and the International Program for Development
• Ability to leverage partnerships with professional
associations and communities of practice such as
the African Evaluation Association, South African
Monitoring and Evaluation Association, and 3ie.
• Expertise in and capacity for all aspects of trust fund
management (e.g., legal, financial).
Regional Advisory Committees
Governance at the centers’ level includes Regional Advisory
Committees, being established by each center to provide
advice and guidance. Committee members will represent
a variety of expertise and knowledge of regional issues
with respect to M&E. This governance structure ensures
participant diversity, country input, and stakeholder support.
The governance and management structure is expected to
evolve as the program matures to meet changing needs and
new challenges. For example, the Board will be expanded
to include senior representatives from the regions in which
the centers are based.
“Through learning, we need
to be able to empower the
countries, policymakers and
practitioners to influence
their entire public investment
programs. This is the beginning
of making a difference.”
— Rakesh Nangia, African Development Bank
16 | Centers for Learning on Evaluation and Results
Board and Staff from Donor Agencies
IEG, The World Bank (Chair)
The World Bank
Inter-American Development Bank
Asian Development Bank
Belgian Development Cooperation Agency
African Development Bank (AfDB)
African Development Bank (AfDB)
Swedish International Development
Co-operation Agency (SIDA)
David Rider Smith
UK Department for International Development (DfID)
UK Department for International Development (DfID)
Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation
Photos courtesy of the CLEAR Secretariat, centers, and the participants for their
contributions. A special thank you to Kieron Crawley, CLEAR Anglophone Africa.
Nidhi Khatrri, Head
Ximena Fernandez Ordonez
Maurya West Meiers
Maria Gabriela Padrino
For more information, www.theclearinitiative.org